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How many times was FDR elected President of the United States ?
Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected President of the United States four times: 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944. Prior to the third-term election of 1940, it was a presidential tradition set by George Washington that presidents only held the office for two terms. As a result of FDR's unprecedented four terms, the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1951, limiting all future presidents to two elected terms.
Who were FDR's opponents?
FDR's Republican Party opponents during the four presidential elections were: 1932, President Herbert Hoover; 1936, Governor Alfred M. Landon of Kansas; 1940, Wendell L. Wilkie of Ohio; 1944, Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York.
When was FDR first inaugurated as President of the United States ?
FDR was first inaugurated as 32nd President on March 4, 1933. The date of March 4 was set by the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Effective in 1937, however, the presidential inauguration date was changed to January 20 by the 20th Amendment.
Who were FDR's Vice Presidents?
FDR had three Vice-Presidents during his four terms in office: John Nance Garner of Texas (March 4, 1933 - January 20, 1941), Henry Agard Wallace of Iowa (January 20, 1941 - January 20, 1945), and Harry S. Truman of Missouri (January 20, 1945 - April 12, 1945).
Who were FDR's Cabinet Officers?
FDR's Cabinet Officers were as follows:
Secretary of State
Cordell Hull, 1933-1944
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1944-1945
Secretary of Treasury
William H. Woodin, 1933
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., 1934-1945
Secretary of War
George H. Dern, 1933-1936
Harry H. Woodring, 1936-1940
Henry L. Stimson, 1940-1945
Attorney General (Department of Justice)
Homer S. Cummings, 1933-1939
Francis W. (Frank) Murphy, 1939-1940
Robert H. Jackson, 1940-1941
Francis Biddle, 1941-1945
James A. Farley, 1933-1940
Frank C. Walker, 1940-1945
Secretary of the Navy
Claude A. Swanson, 1933-1939
Charles Edison, 1940
William Franklin Knox, 1940-1944
James V. Forrestal, 1944-1947
Secretary of the Interior
Harold L. Ickes, 1933-1946
Secretary of Agriculture
Henry A. Wallace, 1933-1940
Claude R. Wickard, 1940-1945
Secretary of Commerce
Daniel C. Roper, 1933-1938
Harry L. Hopkins, 1938-1940
Jesse H. Jones, 1940-1945
Henry A. Wallace, 1945-1946
Secretary of Labor
Frances Perkins, 1933-1945
What were fireside chats and how many did FDR make during his presidency?
When FDR became president in 1933, he believed that the best way to comfort and inform the public about his administration and its policies was to address them on the radio. He considered it most effective to talk to the people as if he had joined them in their living rooms or kitchens for a relaxed, informal conversation about one or two specific topics. The term "Fireside Chat" was not coined by FDR, but rather was used by a reporter to describe FDR's speech of May 7, 1933. The term was quickly adopted throughout the media and by FDR. There was no solid definition as to what constituted a Fireside Chat. As a result, there is some dispute as to the total number of Fireside Chats that FDR delivered.
The following is a list of the thirty-one speeches that have been identified as Fireside Chats:
* WH= White House HP= Hyde Park
1. On the Bank Crisis (March 12, 1933) WH
2. Outlining the New Deal Program (May 7, 1933) WH
3. First Hundred Days: The Purposes and Foundations of the Recovery Program (July 24, 1933) WH
4. The Currency Situation (October 22, 1933) WH
5. Review of the Achievements of the Seventy-third Congress (June 28, 1934) WH
6. Moving Forward to Greater Freedom and Security (September 30, 1934) WH
7. Works Progress Administration and Social Security (April 28, 1935) WH
8. Drought Conditions and the Plight of Farmers (September 6, 1936) WH
9. Reorganization of the Judiciary (March 9, 1937) WH
10. New Proposals to Special Session of Congress and on the Storm Clouds Abroad (October 12, 1937) WH
11. The Unemployment Census (November 14, 1937) WH
12. Economic Conditions (April 14, 1938) WH
13. The Democratic Party Primaries (June 24, 1938) WH
14. The War in Europe (September 3, 1939) WH
15. National Defense and Military Readiness (May 26, 1940) WH
16. Arsenal of Democracy: The Lend-Lease Program (December 29, 1940) WH
17. Proclaiming a National Emergency (May 27, 1941) WH
18. Freedom of the Seas (September 11, 1941) WH
19. War with Japan (December 9, 1941) WH
20. Progress of the War (February 23, 1942) WH
21. National Economic Policy During War: The Call for Sacrifice (April 28, 1942) WH
22. Food Price Stabilization and the Progress of the War (September 7, 1942) HP
23. Report on the Home Front (October 12, 1942) WH
24. The Coal Strike Crisis (May 2, 1943) WH
25. The Fall of Mussolini and Plans for Peace (July 28, 1943) WH
26. Italian Armistice and Launching the Third War Loan Drive (September 8, 1943) WH
27. Report on the Teheran and Cairo Conferences (December 24, 1943) HP
28. State of the Union: National Service and Economic Bill of Rights (January 11, 1944) WH
29. The Capture of Rome (June 5, 1944) WH
30. Launching the Fifth War Loan Drive (June 12, 1944) WH
31. Fireside Chat (Abridged) Version of Message to Congress on Return from Yalta Conference: Work-or-Fight and Vision for the United Nations (January 6, 1945) WH
Did women play a significant part in FDR's administrations?
During FDR's presidency, women were appointed to positions that were unprecedented in terms of both number of appointments as well as rank in the United States government.
The following is a list of some of the "firsts" achieved by women during the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt:
Frances Perkins, New York: First woman member of a President's Cabinet. Secretary of Labor.
Ruth Bryan Owen Rohde, New York and Florida: First woman U.S Minister. She was U.S. Minister to Denmark and Iceland (1933). (Daughter of William Jennings Bryan)
J. Borden Harriman, District of Columbia: First woman U.S. Minister to Norway (1937).
Nellie Tayloe Ross, Wyoming: First woman Director of U.S. Mint (1933).
Josephine Roche, Colorado: First woman Assistant Secretary U.S. Treasury (1934).
Blair Banister, Virginia: First woman U.S. Assistant Treasurer.
Florence Allen, Ohio: First woman appointed to U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (1934).
Mary W. Dewson, Maine: First woman member of Social Security Board (1937).
Emily Newell Blair, Missouri: Chairman, Consumer's Advisory Board, NRA.
Harriet Elliott, North Carolina: Only woman member of National Defense Advisory Commission; first defense agency set up by the President (1940).
Marion J. Harron, California: First woman member of U.S. Court of Tax Appeals.
Carrick H. Buck, New Mexico: First woman Judge Circuit Court, Territory of Hawaii (1934).
Jewell W. Swofford, Missouri: First woman member of U.S. Employees' Compensation Commission.
Margaret Hickey, Missouri: Chairperson of the Women's Advisory Committee, War Manpower Commission (1942).
Josephine Schain, New York: First woman to be named on any United Nations Conference. Served as U.S. Delegate to U.N. Conference of Food and Agriculture.
What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
The Good Neighbor Policy was the common name (first expressed in the First Inaugural Address in 1933) for FDR's foreign policy with regard to Latin America. Under the new policy, the United States pledged that it would treat Latin American nations with respect and avoid intervening in their foreign and domestic affairs.
The goal of the policy was to strengthen the United States economy by increasing trade with Latin America. A necessary prerequisite to increased trade was the improvement of political relations with those countries and the assurance that the United States would no longer interfere in the affairs of its neighbors. As a by-product of the policy, all Latin American countries eventually joined the United States in the war against the Axis Powers.
What was FDR's role in establishing the United Nations?
Even as the United States was moving closer to war, FDR began to formulate his ideas for a post-war world. FDR first discussed a "family of nations" with Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Atlantic Charter conference in August 1941. In January 1942, representatives of 26 nations met in Washington, DC and signed the United Nations Declaration that pledged to win the war against the Axis Powers. FDR suggested the name "United Nations" for the group, and in October 1943 he sent representatives to Moscow to begin preliminary discussions with their counterparts from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and China about the structure of a world political organization.
At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, FDR, Churchill and Premier Stalin of the Soviet Union agreed that the "Big Five" nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France and China) would be permanent members of a United Nations Security Council, a special committee with powers to keep the peace. The leaders also agreed to call a conference in San Francisco, California on April 25, 1945 to prepare a Charter for the new organization. FDR planned to attend the opening of the San Francisco Conference, but he died in Warm Springs, Georgia, on April 12, 1945. Despite this loss, the San Francisco Conference reached final agreement, and delegates from fifty nations signed the Charter on June 26, 1945.
On October 24, 1945 the Big Five plus one-half of the other nations had ratified the Charter, and the United Nations was officially born.
Was there ever an assassination attempt on FDR?
There was never an assassination attempt on FDR after he was inaugurated President of the United States. However, after the presidential election of 1932, and before the inauguration in March 1933, FDR nearly lost his life to an assassin's bullet.
On February 15, 1933, FDR was in Miami, Florida at a public rally accompanied by Anton Cermak, the Mayor of Chicago. Joseph Zangara, a thirty-three year old disillusioned Italian immigrant jumped onto a park bench and fired four shots towards FDR's car. FDR was not hit, but Mayor Cermak was wounded mortally and died a few weeks later.
The public and press hailed FDR's courage in refusing to allow his driver to leave the scene before first attending to the wounded Mayor Cermak and driving him to the hospital. Zangara later stated that he did not hate FDR personally, but rather he hated all government officials and all rich people no matter from which country they came. Zangara was executed for the murder of Mayor Cermak.